Thursday, May 21, 2020

Geography of Pakistans Provinces and Capital Territory

Pakistan is a country located in the Middle East near the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The country is known as having the sixth largest population in the world and the second largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia, is a developing nation with an underdeveloped economy and it has a hot desert climate combined with cold mountainous areas. Most recently, Pakistan has experienced severe flooding that has displaced millions and destroyed a large part of its infrastructure. The country of Pakistan is divided into four provinces and one capital territory for local administration (as well as several federally administered tribal areas). The following is a list of Pakistans provinces and territory, arranged by land area. For reference, population and capital cities have also been included. Capital Territory 1) Islamabad Capital Territory Land Area: 906 sq kmPopulation: 805,235Capital: Islamabad Provinces 1) Balochistan Land Area: 347,190 sq kmPopulation: 6,565,885Capital: Quetta 2) Punjab Land Area: 205,345 sq kmPopulation: 73,621,290Capital: Lahore 3) Sindh Land Area: 140,914 sq kmPopulation: 30,439,893Capital: Karachi 4) Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Land Area: 74,521 sq kmPopulation: 17,743,645Capital: Peshawar Sources Central Intelligence Agency. (19 August 2010). CIA - The World Factbook - Pakistan. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pk.html Wikipedia.org. (14 August 2010). Administrative Units of Pakistan - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative_units_of_Pakistan

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about The History and Evolution of Tai Chi - 1005 Words

The History and Evolution of Tai Chi Tai Chi is a result of the Chinese Taoists. The Taoists in their observation of nature found nothing was entirely still. If prey stayed in one place, the beasts of the forest would take advantage. They also found that this principle applied to humans as well and that if they remain stagnant, it opened the door for disease and old age. From this revelation, the Taoists began creating martial art forms, as well as using yoga introduced from India, to be active. It is believed that this is where Tai Chi has its roots. During the 13th century and the Sung Dynasty (960-1279 CE) Cheung San Fung (Zhang Sanfeng) was a member of the Wudang sect of Taoism under the branch of the School of Neidan or†¦show more content†¦Tai Chi for Meditation is done in conjunction with deliberate breathing techniques; this is termed meditation in motion. These exercises are designed to allow a person to search for a better understanding of them self by balancing the yin and yang within them or harmony of the physical and spiritual beings. These exercises promote a persons emotional or spiritual connection but they also promote physical conditioning such as balance, flexibility, coordination and stamina. Lastly, Tai Chi for protection involves nothing more than the exercises used in the form. There is a theory that states 4 ounces of strength against a ton of force. The methodology around the Chinese defense is incredible as can be found with the correlations between the concepts of Tai Chi and the Tao Te Ching preaching. The following are excerpts from the Tao Te Ching and lend support to the bases of Tai Chi. Verse 22: Therefore the ancients say, Yield or overcome Is that an empty saying? Verse 43: The softest thing in the universe Overcomes the hardest thing in the universe Verse 76: The hard and strong will fall The soft and weak will overcome them. Verse 78: The weak can overcome the strong; The supple can overcome the stiff. Under heaven everyone knows this; Yet no one puts it into practice. Also from the Song of the 13 Postures: Be still, when attacked by the opponent Be tranquilShow MoreRelatedAsian Cuisine1338 Words   |  6 Pagesinto conversation, they may ask the person â€Å"Have you eaten today?†, that is equivalent to our American traditional question when starting a conversation, â€Å"How are you doing.† Cooking is one of the oldest of human activities. When human evolution was at the hunter/gather stage, cooking was very simple -- kill something, throw it on the fire along with whatever vegetables and fruits were found that day, and eat. Spices and cooking equipment were rather simple at that time and there probablyRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Bipolar Disorder1220 Words   |  5 PagesThe history of bipolar disorder is perhaps just as complex as the condition itself. Bipolar is highly recognized as a treatable disorder. The more we learn about bipolar disorder, the more people may be able to receive the help that they need. Centuries passed and little new was discovered about bipolar disorder until French psychiatrist Jean-Pierre Falret published an article in 1851 describing what he called â€Å"la folie circulaire,† which translates to circular insanity. The article details peopleRead MoreSuring Basa2660 Words   |  11 Pageswell-established walking trails in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, plus the chance of spotting macaques, snakes and sea eagles. Don’t feed the monkeys! 10. Enjoy art for art’s sake Opened in 1996, the Singapore Art Museum aims to preserve the art history and practices of the region. Normally $10, but free on Friday evenings, 6-9pm. And one to break the bank Grab yourself a Singapore Sling in the place where it was invented: the Raffles Hotel. The cocktail is best enjoyed in the old-school Bar amp;Read MoreVietnam Internet Data Center Report9450 Words   |  38 Pages.................................................................................................. 30 6. Appendix A: Data Centre Location Maps ........................................................................................ 30 6.1 Ho Chi Minh ................................................................................................................................. 30 6.2 Hanoi ....................................................................................................Read MoreVietnam Internet Data Center Report9450 Words   |  38 Pages...................................................................................................... 30 6. Appendix A: Data Centre Location Maps ........................................................................................ 30 6.1 Ho Chi Minh ................................................................................................................................. 30 6.2 Hanoi ....................................................................................................Read MoreCulture and Religion8004 Words   |  33 Pagesseeking understanding.† CHRISTIANITY: A TREE WITH MANY BRANCHES ââ€" ª Until quite recently, Catholics believed that among Christian churches, they were the only ones who possessed the full truth. Today, many Catholics have a better idea of the history of the Church. So, the way they see things also changes. They now see a sturdy trunk that branched but there are also many other branches, which are fully alive. The other branches have carried and are still carrying valuable amount of fruits. Read MoreRelationship Between Tourism and Cultural Heritage Management: Evidence from Hong Kong7693 Words   |  31 Pagessharing of the resource creates partnership opportunities, whereby mutually beneï ¬ cial outcomes can be achieved. Heritage tourism reintroduces people to their cultural roots (Donert Light, 1996; McCarthy, 1994) and reinvigorates people’s interest in history or culture (Squire, 1996; Tourism Canada, 1991; WTO, nd). Further, culture as a tourist attraction can be a powerful force in arguing that a region’s historic, cultural, religious and industrial past should be conserved (see for example Harrison,Read MoreGuidance and Counseling Program Needs11909 Words   |  48 PagesSignificance of the Study†¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Scope and Limitation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Conceptual Framework.†¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Definition of Terms†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Chapter II Review of Literature†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. The History of Guidance and Counseling in Schools†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Components of School Guidance Programs†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ The Importance of School Counselors†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Fundamental Beliefs and Organizational Structure..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Leadership Roles†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Read MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 Pages Management Contents Feigenbaum−Feigenbaum †¢ The Power of Management Capital 1. New Management for Business Growth in a Demanding Economy 1 1 Text Jones−George †¢ Contemporary Management, Fourth Edition I. Management 17 17 2. The Evolution of Management Thought Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy †¢ Leadership, Fifth Edition I. Leadership is a Process, Not a Position 51 51 70 1. Leadership is Everyone’s Business 2. Interaction between the Leader, the Followers the Situation Cohen †¢ Effective

Imapact evaluation of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program Free Essays

Regular monitoring of the household beneficiary database 2. Spot Checks 3. Quantitative Impact Evaluation (3-Wave Design) (34. We will write a custom essay sample on Imapact evaluation of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program or any similar topic only for you Order Now Qualitative Evaluation 5. Monitoring by a National Independent Advisory and Monitoring Committee Preliminary results of the Pantywaist Paying Filipino Program First Impact Evaluation (2011) 3 Objectives of the Impact Evaluation The II is designed to assess: 1 . Current effects of Pantywaist Family, Conditional Cash Family, Transfer Program ; Impact on use of health services and health outcomes ; Impact on schooling Impact on consumption 2. Different impact on different groups Geographic areas Gender IP status Relative poverty More children stay in school, with better chance to graduate from grade school 76 % Day Care/ Pre-school 65 % 98 % Elementary School 93 % Regular attendance among 12-14 year olds 10 percentage points higher in enrolment rate in day care or pre-school 96 % 5 percentage points higher in enrollment rate in elementary in regular attendance rate 91 % in elementary high school Pantywaist Households Non-pantywaist Households 4 More families prioritize education and health in their household budget Pantywaist families spend: 33% more on MEDICINE MEDICAL SERVICES 36% more on EDUCATION = household budget More children use health services 80. 6 % 74. 9 % Percentage of children O – 5 years old 70 63. 3 % 55. 3 % 50 Non-pantywaist Households Pantywaist 33. 3 % 20 10 16. 9% Having their weight monitored Taking determine pills Taking Vitamin A 5 More pregnant mothers get health care 54. 2% 63. 6% with 4 prenatal care visits Non -Pantywaist : with prenatal care Pantywaist: 26. 9% 36. 4% with postnatal care within 24 hours after delivery Without prenatal with postnatal Pantywaist: with postnatal care Without Conclusions Based on the initial findings, Pantywaist Family: ; Has strong and consistent impact on the key indicators targeted by the program in line with other ACT programs around the world. ; Is on track in reaching the program objectives set by DEWS 6 Future Plans and Directions On Impact Evaluation ; Conduct of 2nd and 3rd Wave Impact Evaluation in October 2013 and October 201 5 respectively ; Conduct of specialized studies on: ; Infant and Maternal Health ; Gender ; Indigenous Peoples . Pad ; Family Development Sessions ; Transition ; Local governance (supply side) 7 Thank you you. How to cite Imapact evaluation of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Renting A House Essays - Demography, Roommate,

Renting A House Communicating with people from other countries often makes me bother, and it happens when I am totally not expected about. This is not the first visit to the other country, but talking non-native language in non-native country is quite different from the long time study in my country. Especially, when we face some special occasion, like renting a room, it is very hard to negotiate with people. Renting a room is not a thing I am familiar with even in Japan. One day on July, one rumor among Japanese students became true, that not all of us can have a room in dormitory even if one send request in this April. My friend received a mail from UNR, which said that he could not have a room next semester. My friend and I were just shocked and on that day we started looking for a room. The most important thing to do when we want to find a nice room, I thought, was that to correct as much information as I can. Therefore, what I did at first is to check every public board not to miss any information that says, Roommates wanted, Room for Rent or House for rent. I searched the board in Business Building, EJCH, JTSU, and Main library. However, I could not many of them and if luckily I found these were not so cheap or too far from UNR. Then I started to search the room list at Student Residency Service office. There I found one room five minutes from school on foot. I went back to the dorm I live now in a hurry and called, it was my first phone call to person from other country. The call rang, but no one answer. I waited for a while, then the massage started saying This number is no longer validplease call XXX-XXXX. A short tense atmosphere ended, and I felt relieved. I called the new number, but I could not talk to anyone. After a while, I received new information of vacant room very near from a school. When I was writing e-mail, one of my roommates backed home. He was going to pay a deposit of the room and he told me that the house has some more vacant room available. We went to see the room. There were two vacant rooms; one was on the basement another was on the first floor. I loved the one in the first floor because it has two windows with new carpet. Moreover, the monthly rent was only $290 including utilities. However, since it was sudden news, I wanted to talk to my parents to be allowed. I left the house with my friends for that day. The things were seemed going all right for having parental permission, but truth was not. While I couldnt make an appointment, some one met the owner and had paid the deposit. I was just shocked; I couldnt concentrate on my classes on that day. I regret myself why I didnt decide to rent the room immediately after I loved it. Then I started to seek a room again at the office, but another good news was waiting for me. I receive a phone call from the owner that he says I can rent the room I wanted. I couldnt understand what was going on. He said again that I could rent because the one who paid the deposit accept the exchange of the room with one on the basement. This time I was just lucky, but this experience was a good lesson to me that if you are in a competition with many others one have to decide everything immediately. Especially like in this case of renting a house, the owner or the real estate agent will likely to put advertisements many places. This means that many will come and see the room. We need to be care full and judge whether if the room or the product is good but at the same time we have to be very quick once we know it is a good one. English Essays

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Analysis of Eli Lilly case study

Analysis of Eli Lilly case study Review the history in recent years of Lilly that is presented in the case: what mistakes did Lilly make in its product development efforts?Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Analysis of Eli Lilly case study specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Eli Lilly pharmaceutical company had been well known for the manufacture of insulin related products needed in the treatment of diabetes. The company had managed to establish very firm foundation in North America, Canada as well as other well developed economies (Christensen, 2004). As a matter of fact, Eli Lilly was one of the global market leaders in the production of insulin. Its major competitor was Novo Nordisk, a German based pharmaceutical firm. However, the two market rivals merged and formed one big firm. For a considerable period of time, Eli Lilly had enjoyed impressive revenue amounting to over $5 billion. In any case, the second largest generator of revenue at Eli L illy was insulin. The company started experiencing expedited growth in its manufacturing portfolio when it was awarded an exclusive license to manufacture and market insulin products in the wider North America. Although this was an early development, it greatly gave the company an impetus for growth bearing in mind that it came at a time when demand for insulin in the entire American continent was high due to increased obesity (Christensen, 2004). There were myriad of mistakes that the management at Eli Lilly Co. made in their path towards product development. It is imperative to note that all the subsequent improvements that were done on insulin especially after 1923 brought about tremendous results. However, the company failed to prioritize its development agenda. It is indisputable that the pharmaceutical company was faced with a major management challenge throughout its operations. For instance, one of the vivid mistakes that Eli Lilly committed was to invest enormous amount of money when innovating in one product only (Insulin). This was executed without a proper audit of the cost benefit analysis. In other words, the company proceeded with an extremely fast pace of innovation which jeopardized its operations in later years due to loss of billions of dollars. For example, the pens and Match insulin that were launched almost on all major markets across the world was done within a very short time. In addition, the test data technology as well as operating CDS centers proved to be an extra and unnecessarily financial burden to the company. It is imperative to mention that the CDS centers were not used to retail insulin products for Eli Lilly Company. These centers were meant for providing education to the population. As a result, there were no direct returns on this multi-million investment. The company also failed or completely ignored to work on its supply chain management as well as product line rationalization.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Why were those mistakes made in your opinion? Explain what you mean. In my opinion, Eli Lilly failed to draft its own developmental plan and the various phases through which innovation would take place. While we may appreciate the fact that the company made some considerable gains in its development record in manufacturing and marketing insulin products, it is worth noting that it reached at a point when cash outflows in terms of innovative investment went far above the revenue generated. In addition, the company should have introduced insulin products into the market bit by bit only after assessing the competitiveness and demand of the products. In most of its innovative moves, Eli Lilly did not proceed with caution. The company disregarded the potential of other market players. In addition, it did not carry out any investment appraisal or prior surveys before expandin g to overseas markets. As you analyze what lessons Lilly needs to have learned from its past experiences, apply those lessons to the innovation projects on Mr. Larry Ellingson’s current agenda at the time of the case. Is the Company pursuing the right diabetes related opportunities in light of what you perceive matters to most customers? Specify which of the possible projects he should emphasize and why. (Note that as always, there are various different segments of customers, some more important to growth than others). There are several lessons that Eli Lilly ought to have learnt from its past management loopholes. To begin with, it is worth noting that the main management problem at the company was largely a function of how innovation was approached over the years. In the case of Eli Lilly, it was necessary for the company to develop a statistical study source that would capture the internal innovative strategy of the firm as well as analyze the economic features of both the products being sold and innovative response of the market. For instance, the Portable Blood Glucose Meters did not respond well to some markets due to the prime price of the product. Additionally, the market dynamics led to low or reduced sales due to high competition from other market rivals. There were some companies like Boehringer Mannheim that were selling their insulin with free samples attached to the gadget. Mr. Larry Ellingson’s current agenda on innovation may not be addressing the needs of all segments of customers. The management of the company should emphasize on developing more user-friendly insulin gadgets and which are also cost effective. The CDS centers should be operated minimally or eliminated altogether. Mr. Larry Ellingson ought to embark on thorough Research and Development (RD) especially in foreign markets in order to establish the various needs of consumer segments available in the market before eventually rolling out new products.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Analysis of Eli Lilly case study specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What about Humulin – what should the Company do with this product on which it has spent so much money with such poor results, why did it do this, what should it do now should it market it more widely to doctors (advertising was largely still forbidden at this time), market it differently, or discontinue it? The fact Humulin has been assimilated into the market as well as cost the company enormous sum of money implies one important consideration. It should be promoted in the market using the most viable avenues of advertisements. Market promotion should be accompanied by price reduction of the product so that all segments of consumers are reached out. It is most likely that the prime price of Humulin was a major marketing setback for the product. In addition, marketing of Humulin should also target professionals in healthcar e such as doctors. Is Eli Lilly Co. talking to the right persons or groups to determine what product features or advancements would be most appreciated by the â€Å"diabetes related market?† Explain your answer, do not just answer yes or no. It is highly likely that Eli Lilly Co has failed to contract the right persons or professional to carry out market survey before embarking on selling newly innovated products. This has been evident from the fact that a product such as Humulin did not yield positive outcome in the market. Research and Development (RD) is indeed necessary as part and parcel of successful innovative end. What other steps should Ellingson and/or his bosses do to ensure the success of Eli Lilly’s efforts to grow and expand its diabetes related market? The following are some of the steps that should be taken to ensure growth of diabetes related market: exercise strategic human resource management, conduct cost-benefit analysis, create a distinction bet ween process of innovation viability of individual product in the market as well as understand the various modes of innovation that can be successfully employed in international and domestic companies (Jolly, 2003).Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What should we learn from this sad case? The main lesson that can be learnt from this case analysis is that the process of innovative development in an organization should be executed with caution and proper planning (Jolly, 2003). References Christensen, M.C. (2004). Eli Lilly and Company: Innovation in Diabetes Care. Harvard Business School. 697(77): 71-86. Jolly, A. (2003). Innovation: harnessing creativity for business growth. London, UK: Kogan Page.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

How to Study If You Only Have Minutes to Cram

How to Study If You Only Have Minutes to Cram Weve all been there: you either procrastinate or forget about a test until the last minute, at which point you realize that you have less than an hour to cram in as much knowledge as possible. Heres how to make the most of your cram session and study for your test in an hour or less. Find a Quiet Study Space If youre at school, head to the library or a quiet classroom. If youre studying at home, turn off the TV, shut off your phone, power down the computer, and head to your room. Politely request that your friends and/or family give you time to study quietly. If you have only a short period of time  to cram, youll need 100% of your focus. Review Your Study Guide If youve been lucky enough to receive a study guide from your teacher, use it! Study guides are a crammers best friend. Read through the study guide as many times as you can. Memorize as much of the content as possible, using mnemonic devices like acronyms or songs. You can also try reading out loud and discussing the content with a friend or family member. Dont worry about making flashcards or taking notes- an in-depth review of the study guide itself will be more effective. Crack Open the Textbook If you do not have a study guide, grab a pen and a notebook and open up your textbook. After youve confirmed which chapter(s) the test will cover, read the first two pages of each relevant chapter. Look for major ideas, vocabulary, and concepts, and as you read, summarize any words or phrase that are bold or highlighted in the text. (You can do this summary process in writing if you have time, or simply state your summary out loud). After youve read the first two pages of every chapter, read the last page of every chapter and answer the review questions in your head. If you cant figure out an answer to a review question, look it up in the textbook before moving on. These review questions are often good previews of the type of content to expect on your test. Review Notes, Quizzes and Assignments Dont have access to your textbook? Gather as many notes, quizzes, and assignments relevant to your upcoming test as you can. Your personal notes will hold plenty of useful information, and your teachers quizzes and assignments are often one of the main sources of test questions. Read every page as you would a study guide or textbook chapter, focusing on key terms and concepts. Try to memorize as much of the content as you can with mnemonic devices. Quiz Yourself Using your study guide, textbook, and/or previous assignments, hold a quick quiz session. Look for key terms, then cover up the answers with your hand and try to define them. Next, look for big concepts, then flip over the pages and explain the concepts in your head. Circle or write down any topics you have trouble with and review them several times. If you have time and access to a study buddy, he or she can help out by guiding you through one last quiz session, but self-studying is just as productive. Write Down Your Mnemonic Devices As soon as the teacher hands out the test and says begin, write your newly-created mnemonic devices (acronyms, phrases, etc.) down on your test paper. Seeing these mnemonic devices will jog your memory as you go through the test. Ask the Teacher for Help If you get confused or stuck during the test, dont be afraid to raise your hand and politely ask for help. Many teachers are willing to guide you in the right direction, particularly if they know you to be a hard-working student.

How to Study If You Only Have Minutes to Cram

How to Study If You Only Have Minutes to Cram Weve all been there: you either procrastinate or forget about a test until the last minute, at which point you realize that you have less than an hour to cram in as much knowledge as possible. Heres how to make the most of your cram session and study for your test in an hour or less. Find a Quiet Study Space If youre at school, head to the library or a quiet classroom. If youre studying at home, turn off the TV, shut off your phone, power down the computer, and head to your room. Politely request that your friends and/or family give you time to study quietly. If you have only a short period of time  to cram, youll need 100% of your focus. Review Your Study Guide If youve been lucky enough to receive a study guide from your teacher, use it! Study guides are a crammers best friend. Read through the study guide as many times as you can. Memorize as much of the content as possible, using mnemonic devices like acronyms or songs. You can also try reading out loud and discussing the content with a friend or family member. Dont worry about making flashcards or taking notes- an in-depth review of the study guide itself will be more effective. Crack Open the Textbook If you do not have a study guide, grab a pen and a notebook and open up your textbook. After youve confirmed which chapter(s) the test will cover, read the first two pages of each relevant chapter. Look for major ideas, vocabulary, and concepts, and as you read, summarize any words or phrase that are bold or highlighted in the text. (You can do this summary process in writing if you have time, or simply state your summary out loud). After youve read the first two pages of every chapter, read the last page of every chapter and answer the review questions in your head. If you cant figure out an answer to a review question, look it up in the textbook before moving on. These review questions are often good previews of the type of content to expect on your test. Review Notes, Quizzes and Assignments Dont have access to your textbook? Gather as many notes, quizzes, and assignments relevant to your upcoming test as you can. Your personal notes will hold plenty of useful information, and your teachers quizzes and assignments are often one of the main sources of test questions. Read every page as you would a study guide or textbook chapter, focusing on key terms and concepts. Try to memorize as much of the content as you can with mnemonic devices. Quiz Yourself Using your study guide, textbook, and/or previous assignments, hold a quick quiz session. Look for key terms, then cover up the answers with your hand and try to define them. Next, look for big concepts, then flip over the pages and explain the concepts in your head. Circle or write down any topics you have trouble with and review them several times. If you have time and access to a study buddy, he or she can help out by guiding you through one last quiz session, but self-studying is just as productive. Write Down Your Mnemonic Devices As soon as the teacher hands out the test and says begin, write your newly-created mnemonic devices (acronyms, phrases, etc.) down on your test paper. Seeing these mnemonic devices will jog your memory as you go through the test. Ask the Teacher for Help If you get confused or stuck during the test, dont be afraid to raise your hand and politely ask for help. Many teachers are willing to guide you in the right direction, particularly if they know you to be a hard-working student.